Studying important health topic: "Nutrition in diabetes mellitus", it is important to know what foods are forbidden for diabetics already at the initial stage of the disease, and which ones are recommended to ensure a long period of remission. If we restrict ourselves to fractional power and strictly follow the prescribed diet, not much to fear from undesirable surges in blood glucose. Medical diet for diabetics is adjusted individually, is part of a comprehensive treatment of this dangerous chronic disease.
What is diabetes
It is an incurable disease is considered extensive pathology of the endocrine system, thus provoking systemic complications in the body. The main objective of effective treatment is the monitoring of blood glucose medical methods, timely normalization of fat and carbohydrate metabolism. In the latter case we are talking about nutrition, which after detailed diagnosis and number of laboratory studies requires the attending physician. Diet for diabetics should become the norm of everyday life, because it promotes proper metabolism.
Patients with overweight are at risk, therefore, it is crucial to control body weight, avoid obesity. If we are talking about nutrition for patients with diabetes mellitus, the portions should be small, but the number of meals it is advisable to increase to 5 – 6. Changing your daily diet, it is important to protect the vessels from destruction, to lose 10% of your actual weight. Welcome the presence in the menu of vitamin-rich food ingredients, but excessive use of salt and sugar will have to forget. The patient will need to return to a healthy diet.
General nutrition guidelines
Increasing obesity in humans, the abdominal type adjusted clinical nutrition. When you create a daily diet, the doctor is guided by the patient's age, sex, weight category, and physical activity. With the question of food a diabetic should refer to the endocrinologist to undergo a series of laboratory tests to determine hormonal levels and its disorders. Here is a memo from experienced professionals:
- A strict diet and hunger contraindicated, otherwise the rate of sugar in the blood is pathologically disturbed.
- The standard of food is the "bread unit", and in the preparation of the daily diet is required to be guided by data from special tables for a diabetic.
- For Breakfast, lunch and dinner should account for 75% of the volume of the daily ration, the remaining 25% comes from snacking throughout the day.
- The preferred alternative products should match the caloric content, the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
- As a by the way, the way of cooking diabetes it is better to use braising, roasting or brewing.
- It is important to avoid cooking with vegetable fats, limit total calorie intake.
- To exclude the presence in the daily diet of sweet dishes, otherwise to reach an acceptable glucose level will have to use glucose-lowering drugs.
Food in diabetes reflects the inner health of the patient. Therefore, it is important to develop mode and without disturbing it, to avoid a very unwanted relapses. Daily nutrition should be a fraction, and the number of meals reaches 5 – 6. Recommended to eat based on the predominant mass of the body, the need to reduce total calories. Medical recommendations are:
- under normal weight– 1 600 – 2 500 kcal per day;
- when exceeding the normal body weight— 1 300 – 1 500 kcal per day;
- with obesity one of the degrees — 600 – 900 kcal per day.
Products for diabetics
A diabetic needs to eat not only tasty, but also healthy. Below are a list of recommended food ingredients that support a valid indicator of blood sugar, thus considerably prolong the period of remission of the underlying disease. Thus:
The name of the food
Use for diabetics
berries (all except raspberries)
contain minerals, antioxidants, vitamins and fiber.
are a source of healthy fats, but are high in calories
unsweetened fruit (sweet fruit presence is prohibited)
have a positive impact on the heart and blood vessels, it slows down the process of absorption of glucose in the blood.
inexhaustible source of calcium, necessary for bones.
normalize the microflora in the intestine and help cleanse the body of toxins.
What kind of sausage can you eat in diabetes
Diet for diabetics involves homemade food, eliminates the use of preservatives and processed foods. This also applies to sausages, the choice of which should be treated with extreme selectivity. It is important to consider the composition of the sausage, the preferred level of glycemic index. Favorites in diabetes and diabetic remain the boiled sausages of different brands with the specified index from 0 to 34 units.
Forbidden foods in diabetes
It is very important not to exceed the daily norm of calories, otherwise progresses one of the forms of obesity, and the level of glucose in the blood is pathologically increased. Moreover, experts specified a number of prohibited foods that you want to exclude their daily menu for diabetes. This following food ingredients:
Harm to the health of a diabetic
the sugar-containing products
enhance glucose relapse.
increase the concentration of bad cholesterol in the blood.
salted and pickled vegetables
violate the water-salt balance.
from cereals – semolina, pasta
reduce the permeability of the vascular walls.
the first broth
contain excess fat.
fatty dairy products, for example, fatty cheese, cream, sour cream
increase the concentration of lipids, an indicator of glucose in the blood.
How can I replace the forbidden food
To preserve taste of food, it is recommended to choose alternative food ingredients. For example, it is desirable to replace sugar with honey, and instead of manna to eat for Breakfast buckwheat porridge. In this case we are talking not only about replacing grains that are prohibited food items to displace the next food ingredients:
- grapes it is advisable to replace apples;
- ketchup – tomato paste;
- ice cream fruit jelly;
- drinks – mineral water;
- chicken soup and vegetable soup.
Food processing methods for patients with diabetes
Fried and canned foods for diabetics should be used as a high probability threat of relapse. Medical foods must be low-fat, more lean. Of the acceptable treatment methods, doctors recommend boiling, stewing, processing in its own juice. So foods retain more of the beneficial properties avoid the formation of harmful cholesterol.
Menu for diabetics
Obesity is one of degree is needed to eat properly, otherwise the number of attacks in diabetes is increasing. In addition to limiting carbohydrates, it is important to control total calories. The remaining recommendations and the specific features of the daily menu below:
- Alcohol, vegetable fats and oils, sweets eat very rarely, and it is better to completely exclude from the daily menu.
- Eat dairy products, lean meat and poultry, legumes, nuts, eggs, fish 2 – 3 servings per day.
- Fruits are allowed to use 2 – 4 servings, whereas a vegetable can be eaten per day to 3 to 5 servings.
- Rules therapeutic diets include bread and cereal with capacious fiber that can be applied to 11 servings per day.
The weekly menu for diabetics
The daily diet of the diabetic should be useful and diverse, it is important to distribute the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. For example, sources of plant proteins are bread, cereals, beans, kidney beans, soybeans. Allowed for a patient with diabetes is dominated by carbohydrates in unsweetened fruit. Sample menu of the patient are shown below:
- Monday: Breakfast - low-fat cottage cheese, lunch – soup of sauerkraut for dinner – baked fish.
- Tuesday: Breakfast – buckwheat porridge in skim milk, lunch – fish for a couple for dinner – savoury fruit salad.
- Monday: Breakfast – cheese pie, for dinner – cabbage soup for dinner – stewed cabbage with steamed meatballs.
- Thursday: Breakfast – milk porridge, lunch – fish soup and for dinner – steamed vegetables.
- Monday: for Breakfast – oatmeal, lunch – cabbage soup, dinner – vegetable salad with boiled chicken.
- Monday: Breakfast – buckwheat porridge with liver, lunch – vegetable stew for dinner – steamed vegetables.
- Monday: Breakfast - pancakes, lunch – vegetarian soup, dinner – boiled squid or shrimp for a couple.
Nutrition in diabetes mellitus type 2
In this disease the doctors recommend to eat with dietary table No. 9, which ensures a thorough control of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Here are the basic principles of clinical nutrition of the patient, which must adhere to all the sick sugar diabetes of the second type:
- the energy value of daily food should be 2400 kcal;
- need to replace foods with simple carbohydrates to complex;
- limit daily salt intake to 6 g per day;
- remove their diet food ingredients that contain harmful cholesterol;
- to increase the amount of fiber, vitamins C and group B.
Foods allowed in diabetes mellitus type 2
the name of the food categories
the name of the food ingredients
all kinds of currants, blueberries, gooseberries
low-fat dairy products
cheese, yogurt, sour
chicken, rabbit, beef
fruit drinks, tea
buckwheat, oat groats
Diet for type 2 diabetes in a week
Eating in the presence of diabetes should be a fraction with a minimal consumption of salt and spices. In addition, it is important to observe the drinking mode to 1.5 l of free fluid. Here is the recommended menu and healthy recipes for every day:
- Monday: Breakfast – oatmeal and unsweetened tea, lunch – borsch on a meat broth, for dinner – cabbage meatballs.
- Tuesday: Breakfast – low-fat cottage cheese with dried apricots, dinner – stewed cabbage with lean boiled meat, dinner – yogurt with bran bread.
- Wednesday: Breakfast – barley porridge, lunch – vegetable soup dinner - cabbage schnitzel, cranberry juice.
- Thursday: Breakfast – buckwheat cereal, lunch – fish soup, dinner – fish cakes with egg.
- Friday: Breakfast – cabbage salad, lunch – steamed vegetables with chicken, dinner – cottage cheese casserole.
- Saturday: Breakfast – egg white omelet, lunch – vegetarian soup, dinner – pumpkin porridge with rice.
- Sunday: Breakfast – cream cheese, lunch – bean soup, dinner – barley porridge with eggplant caviar.